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网站翻译/注意语境与逻辑

网站翻译相关知识 - 注意语境与逻辑


  注意语境与逻辑

  选择词义是理解原文的第一步,也是翻译中的一大难题。英语中一词多义现象,可谓比比皆是。因此,我们必须通过原词所在语境(context) 的逻辑关系,反复斟酌,作出适当的选择,切忌望文生义,也不可草率地简单搬用词典释义。

  分析原文的语法结构,是理解句意的重要方法,可以帮助我们理解各个结构层面关系。然而有些英语词句的表层结构与表达的语义之间存在着复杂的关系,若从表层形式分析理解,会误入歧途。必须依靠语境,通过逻辑分析,才能作出正确的判断。

一、词汇问题

  有许多词在联合国文件中有固定译法,如果出现在其他场合,不一定要(甚至一定不要)按联合国文件里的固定译法去译。如programme在联合国预算文件中译为"方案",而在其他场合可以有多个译法(意思)供酌情选用:纲领、大纲、程序、节目单、说明书、时间表、课程……等等。

例: (1) The reform agenda includes such wide-ranging items as… 改革计划范围广泛,包括以下各项内容…… (不按联合国文件译"议程"和"项目"。) (2) Tickets can be obtained ad hoc at the entrance. 届时可以在入口处领到入场券。 (不按联合国文件译"特设"。) (3) Open-ended improvement of living standards 无止境地提高生活水平 (不按联合国文件译"不限人数的"。) (4) An ad hoc approach 头痛医头脚痛医脚的办法(或)治标不治本 (不按联合国文件译"特设"。)


二、句法/逻辑问题

  语法是分析句子结构的入门向导,但不等于翻译方法,要按逻辑关系确定译法。比如,用which连接的从句,按语法分析是定语从句,但这个从句却可能会有结果、让步等逻辑关系;用when连接的时间状语从句,可能会有条件关系,等等。

例: (1) The democratic reforms have put an end to the system of feudal custom and have brought about radical changes in Tibet, which has now entered a new historic stage. 民主改革结束了封建传统制度,给西藏带来了根本性的变化,从而使西藏进入了一个崭新的历史阶段。(结果) (2) A small old hotel where you are given a warm welcome is a much nicer place to stay than a large modern hotel where nobody smiles or does anything to help you. 一家旅馆虽然又老又小,如果对你热情接待,就比住那种既没有微笑又不肯帮忙的现代化大酒店舒服多了。(条件) (3) A nation whose people face starvation can hardly be blamed for failing to make debt payments. 如果一个国家的人民在忍饥挨饿,那就不好责备他们欠债不还了。(条件) (4) This is the thinking of the Polish delegation, which is prepared to participate in the work of any consultative group set up. 这就是波兰代表团的想法,不过我们准备参加任何为此建立的协商小组的工作。(让步) (5) I hope that the suspicion that the Maltese Government has acted on external prompting will not prove prejudicial to the consideration of the proposal by those big Powers whose co-operation in the matter is indispensable. 我希望对于马耳他政府是否由于外界怂恿而这样做的那种猜疑将不致使那些大国对于这个建议的考虑产生任何成见,因为大国在这件事情上的合作是必不可少的。(原因) (6) His delegation considered that the Commission had reached a correct solution when it had decided to formulate the text of the article without referring to the issue of dispute settlement. 他的代表团认为委员会找到了一个正确的解决办法,即决定在拟定条款案文时不提争端解决的问题。(同位语)

  以上原则也适用于分词短语、介词短语等结构。 例: (7) But having embarked on a series of measures of unprecedented severity, at considerable cost and still greater risk to ourselves, in order to secure the return of the Rhodesian people to their true allegiance and to constitutional courses of action, we have the right to ask every Member of this Assembly to give us their fullest support. 但是,既然我们已经付出很大代价并冒着比所付代价更大的风险开始采取一系列空前严厉的措施以使罗德西亚人民恢复他们的真正归属并重新按宪法行事,那么我们就有权要求大会的每一个会员国给予我们最充分的支持。(原因) (8) … and that subject, I submit, is vast enough and important enough to merit consideration on its own without being complicated with other marine problems which, though undoubtedly related, are nevertheless not strictly relevant to this present discussion.

  ……而这个题目,即使不把别的海洋问题和它扯在一起,我认为其本身的广泛和重要就足以值得我们加以考虑了,虽然那些问题无疑跟它有关系,但在目前的讨论中却不是十分切题的。


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